Chronic Kidney Disease

Are You at risk for Chronic Kidney Disease?


chronic kidney disease

I attended a lecture about Chronic Kidney Disease at the University of Cape Town during the week. It surprises me that there is not more public awareness about chronic kidney disease. There are so many patients out there that are at risk for chronic kidney disease.

Causes for kidney disease
•Autoimmune disorders: systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma
• Polycystic kidney disease
•Toxic chemicals
•Injury to the kidneys
•Kidney stones and chronic infection
•Problems arterial blood flow the kidneys
•Some pharmaceutical drugs
• Backflow of urine into the kidneys (reflux nephropathy)
• Missed glomerular nephritis
•HIV and Aids
• Diabetes
• High blood pressure

•Loss of appetite
•Itching and dry skin
•Nausea and vomiting
•Weight loss

Advanced symptoms
•Abnormally dark or light skin
• Pain in bones
• Dizziness or problems concentrating or thinking
•Numbness and or swelling in the hands and feet
• Frequent muscle twitching or cramps
• Halitosis (bad breath)
•Easy bruising and or blood in the stool
•Excessive thirst all the time
• Hiccups
• Problems with sexual interaction
•Menstrual periods stop
•Shortness of breath
• Insomnia (sleeping problems)
• Vomiting

Call to action
If you suffer from any of the mentioned diseases or have regular symptoms of the above, please ask your doctor for an annual blood test for kidney function. Look after your kidneys, and they will look after you as long as you take care of them. Kidney disease can be prevented, get checked and take action


1. Fogarty DG, Tall MW. A stepped approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA et al. eds. Brenner and Rector’s The Kidney. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 61.
2. Tonelli M, Pannu N, Manns B. Oral phosphate binders in patients with kidney failure. N Engl J Med. 2010; 362:1312-1324.
3. Abboud H, Henrich WL. Clinical practice. Stage IV chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2010; 362:56-65.
4. Upadhyay A, Earley A, Haynes SM, Uhlig K. Systematic review: blood pressure target in chronic kidney disease and proteinuria as an effect modifier. Ann Intern Med. 2011; 154:541-548.
5. KDOQI. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline and Clinical Practice Recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease: 2007 update of hemoglobin target. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007; 50:471-530.
6. KDOQI; National Kidney Foundation II. Clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease in adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;47(5 Suppl 3):S16-S85.
7. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI). K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines on hypertension and antihypertensive agents in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004; 43(5 Suppl 1):S1-S290.

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